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Effect of reproductive hormones variation during menstrual cycle on hip abductor and adductor muscles performance in college students



The hip abductors and adductors play an important role in the stability of the hip and knee joints and knee injury risk. Menstrual cycle is associated with hormones fluctuations that may affect functions of muscles and ligaments and increase the knee risk injury. However, their effect on the abductors and adductors performance is still unknown, which may be a step in developing conditioning programs to reduce injury risk.


This study aimed to examine the effect of hormones variation during menstrual cycle on abductor and adductor muscles performance in sedentary college students.

Patients and methods

Twenty-four college students completed the study protocol. Their age and BMI ranged from 19 to 25 years and 25–29.9 kg/m2, respectively. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured. Biodex system 3-isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure isokinetic parameters of hip abductor and adductor muscles including peak torque, maximum work, total work, average power, work repetition number, work fatigue percentage, angle of peak torque, acceleration time, and deceleration time. Measurements were taken during early follicular (1–3 days) and mid-luteal phases (21–23 days), which were detected using basal body temperature method.


There were significant increases in estradiol (P=0.0001), progesterone (P=0.002), peak torque of hip abductors (P=0.03) and adductors (P=0.04), maximum work of hip abductors (P=0.01), total work of hip abductors (P=0.01) and adductors (P=0.02), and average power of hip abductors (P=0.0.01) and adductors (P=0.02) during the mid-luteal phase compared with the early follicular phase.


Abductor and adductor muscles strength changes with the surging levels of estradiol and progesterone during normal menstrual cycle that need to be considered in strengthening exercises for sedentary college students to avoid injury risk.


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Correspondence to Abeer M. ElDeeb PhD.

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ElDeeb, A., Osman, D., Atta, H. et al. Effect of reproductive hormones variation during menstrual cycle on hip abductor and adductor muscles performance in college students. Bull Fac Phys Ther 24, 72–78 (2019).

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  • menstrual cycle
  • muscle performance
  • reproductive hormones