Skip to main content

Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic wave versus low-level laser therapy in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized trial

Abstract

Background

Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as pain during menstruation, and it affects participation in daily activities.

Objective

This study was conducted to compare and add evidence between the effect of pulsed electromagnetic wave and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

Participants and methods

A total of 50 female students complained of primary dysmenorrhea, with age ranging from 16 to 22 years and BMI from 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. They were divided randomly into two equal groups – group A comprised 25 female students who received Pulsed electromagnetic field, and group B comprised 25 female students who received LLLT. Samples of blood were taken before and after treatment to detect the level of prostaglandins in blood. Present pain intensity scale (Ppi) is used for the assessment of pain before and after treatment.

Results

There was a significant reduction (P<0.05), in prostaglandin level in both groups post-treatment; when comparing between groups there was no statistical significant difference (P>0.05), whereas there was a clinical difference in favor of group A. In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction (P=0.0001) post-treatment in Ppi scale in both groups. When comparing between both groups, there was a significant reduction (P=0.0001), in Ppi and this significant reduction was in favor of group A.

Conclusion

The results of this study suggested that both pulsed electromagnetic waves and LLLT are effective methods in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, with better effects of pulsed electromagnetic waves than LLLT.

References

  1. Harel Z. Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: from pathophysiology to pharmacological treatments and management strategies. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2008; 15: 2661–2672.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Sharma A, Taneja D, Sharma P, Saha R. Socioeconomic correlates of reproductive morbidity among adolescent girls in Sikkim, India. Asia Pac J Public Health 2012; 24:136–150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Harada T. Dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. Yonago Acta Med 2013; 56:81–84.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Mueller A, Maltaris T, Siemer J, Binder H, Hoffmann I, Beckmann M, Dittrich R. Uterine contractility in response to different prostaglandins: reslts from extracorporeally perfused non-pregnant swine uteri. Hum Reprod 2006; 21:2000–2005.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Rodrigues L, Gerzson L, Padilha J, Braz M, Gasparetto A, Targownik L. Physiotherapy in primary dysmenorrhea: literature review. Rev Dor São Paulo 2014; 15:290–295.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Markov M, Colbert A. Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation. Adv Ther 2000; 17:57–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Marko V, Marko S. Expanding use of pulsed electromagnetic field. Biol Med 2007; 26:257–274.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer JW, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus C, Nicolakis J. Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee a double-blind sham-controlled trial. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002; 30:678–684.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Krylov OA, Antonov AB, Eliseeva ZV, Malikova SN, Shevelev IN. Structural and functional characteristics of recovery of the severed sciatic nerve exposed to pulsed magnetic field. Patol Fiziol Eksp Ther 1993; 4:29–33.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bjordal M, Martins B, Iversen V. A randomized placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activatd Achilles tendonitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentration. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40:76–80; [discussion 76–80].

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Low J, Reed A. Laser therapy. In: Dyson M, editor. Electrotherapy explained principles and practice. 3rd ed. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000. 357–363.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Sabour A. Low level laser therapy in relation to primary dysmenorrhoea. Thesis Submitted For Partial Fulfillment Of Master Degree Of Gynaecology And Obstetrics. Faculty Of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt; 1996.

  13. Hartrick C, Kovan J, Shapiro S. The numeric rating scale for clinical pain measurement: a ratio measure. Pain Pract 2003; 3:310–316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Mahvash N, Eidy A, Mehdi K, Zahra M, Mani M, Shahla H. The effect of physical activity on primary dysmenorrhea of female university students. World Appl Sci J 2012; 17:1246–1252.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Speroff L, Fritz M. Dysmenorrhea. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. 539.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Targownik L, Thomson P. Gastro protective strategies among NSAID users: guidelines for appropriate use in chronic illness. Can Fam Physician 2006; 52:1100–1105.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Lee C, Kim J, Lim J, Lee S, Choi H, Park SH, et al. Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic therapy for chronic lower back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Int Med Res 2006; 34:160–167.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Oulanove O, Isaac S, Rai A, Hammer M, Poulinol P. Within beyond borders critical multicultural counselling in practice. Canada: University of Toronto OISE, Ontario Institute, Centre for Diversity in Counselling and Psychotherapy; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Fouda A, Refai H, Mohammed N. Low level laser therapy versus pulsed electromagnetic filed for inactivation of myofascial trigger points. Am J Res Commun 2013; 1:68–78.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Trock D, Bollet A, Markoll R. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials. J Rheumatol 1994; 21:1903–1911.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Hutchinson D, Witt S, Fairpo C. Pulsed electromagnetic energy therapy in third molar surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1978; 46:748–754.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Strugatski? VM, Strizhakov AN, Kovalenko MV, Istratov VG, Iakubovich DV. A permanent magnetic field in the combined treatment of acute endometritis after an artificial abortion. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1996; 6:21–24.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Basford J, Cieslak K, Sheffield C. Laser therapy: a randomized, controlled trial of the effects of low intensity Nd:YAG laser irradiation on lateral epicondylitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 11:1504–1510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Gold M. Laser principle. Laser in medicine. 1st ed. New York, NY: Crc Press; 2002. pp. 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eman Abd El Fatah Mohamed PhD.

Additional information

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work noncommercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abd El Fatah Mohamed, E. Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic wave versus low-level laser therapy in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized trial. Bull Fac Phys Ther 22, 53–58 (2017). https://doi.org/10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_69_16

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/bfpt.bfpt_69_16

Keywords

  • dysmenorrhea
  • low-level laser therapy
  • prostaglandin
  • pulsed electromagnetic waves